1. Mpande tried to prevent Cetshwayo from threatening his power, and he again appealed to both the British and the Afrikaners for support. The British took over preexisting Boer claims to parts of western Zululand, and in early 1878 Sir Theophilus Shepstone, the Transvaal administrator, and Sir Bartle Frere, the high commissioner of the Cape (see Cape of Good Hope), began a propaganda campaign against Cetshwayo and the Zulu. Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother. The British partitioned the now-defeated Zululand between themselves and Zulu enemies of Cetshwayo, particularly Hamu in the northwest and Zibhebhu (of the Mandlakazi group) in the northeast. Mpande was sent to demand tribute and annex the newly established kingdom into the Zulu Kingdom. But Cetshwayo dramatically defeated his brother on the banks of the Tugela River in 1856. In 1856 he defeated and killed in battle his younger brother Mbuyazi, Mpande's favorite, at the battle of Ndondakusukaand became the effective ruler of the Zulu people. King Cetshwayo (voorheen uThungulu) is een district in Zuid-Afrika. The Zulus won the Battle of Isandlwana, but they lost the crucial Battle of Ulundi (oNdini). The Last Zulu King: The Life and Death of Cetshwayo, London: Longman|Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879). However, for the next 15 years Cetshwayo seemed to control the Zulu nation, he reenergized the amabutho system and tried to stem the diffusion of power away from the crown and out to the izikhulu (territorial chiefs). It should be supplemented by Donald R. Morris, The Washing of the Spears (1965). Zulu King Cetshwayo Zululand News – General Background. Cetshwayo was a nephew of the first two Zulu kings, Shaka and Dingane. (unknown). The extra territory extended from Rorke’s Drift on the Buffalo River to a point on the Pongola River. Cetshwayo’s army camped on the border of the Boer Republic and promised the Boers a strip of land on the border if they handed his brother over. Drought and famine hit the Zulu nation in the summer of 1852–3 and various factions looked towards civil war as an opportunity to gain cattle. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The first item is a survey of Zulu history, including the events leading to the war of 1879. Cetshwayo was a son of Zulu king Mpande and Queen Ngqumbazi, half-nephew of Zulu king Shaka and grandson of Senzangakhona kaJama. Cetshwayo was a nephew of the first two Zulu kings, Shaka and Dingane. Cetshwayo word beskou as die laaste koning van 'n onafhanklike Zoeloenasie. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. His father declared him his successor very early on in life, which was unusual for a King to do. The uSuthu were defeated and driven into Transvaal and back south to oNdini. Altick, Richard Daniel. et al. On 11 December 1878, under the flimsy pretext of a few minor border incursions into Natal by Cetshwayo's followers, the Zulu were given an impossible ultimatum that they should disarm and Cetshwayo should forsake his sovereignty. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. Cetshwayo kaMpande (1826-8 February 1884) was King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1873 to 1879, succeeding Mpande and preceding Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo. The uMhlathuze Municipality includes the port of Richards Bay, which handles the greatest volume of cargo of any port in Africa and the largest percentage of cargo of any South African port. When his father, Mpande, displaced Dingane in 1840, Cetshwayo was brought into the line of immediate royal succession. Mpande had announced Cetshwayo as his heir shortly before becoming king, this was at an unusually early stage – Mpande even took the step of introducing Cetshwayo to the Boer Volksraad at Pietermaritzburg in 1839. In November 1856 Mpande granted Mbuyazi a large tract of land in south-east Zululand; at the same time he refused to meet with Cetshwayo to discuss the succession question. King Cetshwayo es un ek li distriktes de Kwazulu-Natal provinse de Sud Afrika.Li chef-urbe es Richards Bay.Li majoritate de lun 885 963 homes parla Zulum (2001 nombro Google books online.|Wallis, F. (2000). King Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau.|Potgieter, D.J. Mpande’s forces were defeated by Shoshangane’s force and he was forced to retreat. Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother. Mandlakazi raids into the northern parts of the dwindling area under Cetshwayo’s control culminated in a Mandlakazi attack on Ulundi and the final defeat of Cetshwayo’s Usuthu supporters on July 21, 1883; it is to this, known as the second Battle of Ulundi, that modern historians date the demise of the Zulu kingdom. The doctor who examined him to determine the cause of death suspected that he was poisoned as he seemed in good health that very morning; he was seen taking his usual early morning walk. Ed. King Cetshwayo was born in 1826 to Mpande who was King Shaka's half-brother. The App will allocate unique reference numbers for all your logged cases… Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net. ‎To connect to King Cetshwayo District Municipality, a Water Services Authority. Mpande became King of the Zulus following his defeat of King Dingaan’s army in 1840. Although Cetshwayo was initially supported by the likes of Shepstone and the British the Zulu King soon became a threat to the British confederation of South Africa as the Zulu nation grew in military power under his rule. After Mpande’s death in 1872, he reconstructed and regenerated the Zulu army and had continual border disputes with the Boers in the west and the English in the South. At time of his birth, Shaka Zulu was wielding a very powerful command of the Zulu nation. Mpande was often viewed as a weak man in comparison to his contemporaries as a result and Cetshwayo began gaining influence over the Zulu people. Cetshwayo and Mbuyazi became rivals. The British Secretary for Native Affairs in Natal, Theophilus Shepstone, encouraged Cetshwayo to proclaim his loyalty to his father, and in 1865 Mpande and Cetshwayo were reconciled and in 1857 Cetshwayo and Mpanda came to terms: Cetshwayo would have effective control of the nation whilst Mpande would retain 'ultimate' authority and the title of king. Cele (Alternation), 1998. However, through incompetence and overconfidence they had a column destroyed at Isandhlwana by the Zulu later that month (see Battles of Isandhlwana and Rorke’s Drift). Further Reading on Cetshwayo. The civil war between Cetshwayo and Zibhebhu ranged across the Mahlabathini plain and the uSuthu was once again defeated. King Cetshwayo House, Kruger Rand Street, CBD, RICHARDS BAY. In 1857 Cetshwayo and Mpanda came to terms: Cetshwayo would have effective control of the nation whilst Mapande would retain 'ultimate' authority and the title of king. Tallie, T. J.. “On Zulu King Cetshwayo kaMpande’s Visit to London, August 1882.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History. In July 1882 Cetshwayo was permitted to travel to the United Kingdom to seek support from British politicians for the restoration of the Zulu monarchy. Born around 1826, Cetshwayo KaMpande was one of several sons of King Mpande, who watched on while his sons fought it out amongst themselves to establish ascendency. King Cetshwayo District Municipality (formerly Uthungulu District Municipality) is one of the 11 district municipalities ("districts") of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa.The seat of the district is Richards Bay.The majority of its 885 944 people speak Zulu (2001 Census).The district code is DC28. Corrections? In view of the evidence mentioned above (p. 257) that such leaks were usually not accidental, it may be that the impi was intended as nothing more than a gesture to the favourite assuring him of the king's continued esteem. King Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. tReprint series, vno. Web. This source consists of three documents which were dictated by Cetshwayo, the Zulu king, while he was a prisoner in exile. From Malandela to Shaka, to Dingane and Cetshwayo, Nkandla has been at the centre stage of the Zulu nation’s history. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Cetshwayo, king of the Zulu, under British guard in Southern Africa, 1879. In the ensuing battle of Ndondakusuka, Mpande backed Mbuyazi, who was also supported by John Dunn. He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. King Cetshwayo District Municipality launched the Nkandla Vutshini SSA2 reticulation project at Ward 13, Tulwane, earlier today. Location The King Cetshwayo District (KCD) with its … King Cetshwayo rejected the ultimatum and war broke out between the two nations. King of the Zulus during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, Cetshwayo experienced defeat, imprisonment and restoration at the hands of the British Empire. Standard Encyclopedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 7, p. 626. Without the full backing of the British parliament, Frere went ahead with his war plans. Jan 23, 2017 - Cetshwayo’s place of birth was his father’s (Mpande) kraal of Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe. Die King Cetshwayo-distriksmunisipaliteit (voorheen uThungulu-distriksmunisipaliteit)) is een van die 10 distriksmunisipaliteite van KwaZulu-Natal.Die setel van die munisipaliteit is in Richardsbaai.Die meeste inwoners in die munisipale gebied is Zoeloesprekend.Die munisipaliteit se kode is DC28. The General public can download the App, and Municipal account holders need to register before accessing Account info, ID Number and Water account. He was prevented from conducting a post mortem inquiry into the King’s cause of death by the relatives of the King when he told them that the procedure of this inquiry would involve dissecting his body. After his death Cetshwayo came to the throne and an official coronation ceremony took place the following year. Although it is clear that by this stage Cetshwayo’s influence was greater than that of Mpande’s, Mpande remained king until his death on 19 November 1872, although he withdrew increasingly from public life. As absolute ruler of a rigidly disciplined army of 40,000 men, Cetshwayo was considered a threat to British colonial interests; the Anglo-Zulu War (1879) and subsequent destruction of Zulu power removed that threat. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Cetshwayo (ca. Umtonga fled from Zululand to the Colony of Natal in 1865 and Cetshwayo felt that part of the agreement he made with the Boers had not been upheld. (1963). Cetshwayo famously led the Zulu during the 1879 Anglo-Zulu War , scoring a major victory over the British at the Battle of Isandlwana before the British stormed his capital of Ulundi and forced him to surrender. Canonici and T.T. The King Cetshwayo District Municipality (previously uThungulu District Municipality) is a Category C municipality and is located in the north-eastern region of the KwaZulu-Natal Province. africanhistory.about.com, last accessed 7 January 2009|Cohen, Y.A. On the afternoon of 8 February 1884 Cetshwayo died. The rule of succession is that the heir is born of the women whom the King makes his chief wife. Sir Frere orchestrated a campaign to annex the Zulu kingdom even though British policy at the time was to avoid war with the Zulus. He tried to reclaim the land nearly causing a war as a Zulu army under Cetshwayo and a Boer commando under Paul Kruger positioned themselves along the border between Utrecht and Zululand. He did not ascend to the throne, however, as his father was still alive. King Cetshwayo ligt in de provincie KwaZoeloe-Natal en telt 907.519 inwoners[3]. Siedzibą administracyjną dystryktu jest Richards Bay. By the mid-1850s Cetshwayo was head of a young Zulu group known as the Usuthu. Cetshwayo fled to the British Zulu Native Reserve, where he later died at the British administrative centre of Eshowe in February 1884. The official cause of his sudden death was given as a heart attack, though the Zulu believed he had been poisoned. King Cetshwayo was born to Mpande, who was King Shaka’s half brother in 1826. Permission was granted, but the ensuing plan ensured the permanent emasculation of the monarchy. Omissions? King Cetshwayo District Municipality includes three coastal local municipalities: uMfolozi, uMhlathuze and uMlalazi. During a Zulu civil war in 1856, Cetshwayo’s Usuthu force defeated his rival and brother Mbuyazwe’s Gqoza group in a violent encounter at the Battle of Ndondakasuka (near the lower Tugela River). Dino Franco Felluga. As expected, the ultimatum was not met, and in January 1879 the British attacked Zululand. He was subsequently sent into exile. 121 A further twist to the story is that Cetshwayo got wind of the plot and tipped the nephew off, so that in the event he escaped death and secured his inheritance. Later he was allowed to travel to London and met Queen Victoria, who permitted him to return to South Africa to rule a portion of the former Zulu kingdom in 1883. WORKS CITED. King Cetshwayo was born in 1826 to Mpande who was King Shaka's half-brother. But his prospects remained uncertain, for although the eldest son of Mpande's first wife, he was closely matched in age by a half brother, Mbulazi, the eldest son of Mpande's more favored second wife. The second item is a letter to Sir Hercules Robinson, governor of the Cape Colony. He was met at Port Durnford in January by Shepstone who arranged the details of his restoration, but he was not permitted an army to defend his somewhat reduced 'nation' – part of the arrangement was that the north of Zululand was to be put under the control of Zibhebhu kaMaphitha. In 1856 he defeated and killed in battle his younger brother Mbuyazi, Mpande's favorite, at the Battle of Ndondakusuka. On this video I speak about the history of my Great grandfather's Father King Cetshwayo, son of King Mpande and King Mpande was the younger brother of King Shaka. As the situation worsened, Mpande made more of his support for his son Mbuyazi. He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. The southern part of Zululand between the Tugela and Mhlatuze rivers was annexed by Britain as the Zulu Native Reserve. Cetshwayo’s grave, in the Nkandla forest, is considered sacred and is guarded by the Zulu. King Cetshwayo District Municipality (formerly Uthungulu District Municipality [4]) is one of the 11 district municipalities ("districts") of KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa.The seat of the district is Richards Bay.The majority of its 885 944 people speak Zulu (2001 Census).The district code is DC28. King Cetshwayo is een district in Zuid-Afrika. King Cetshwayo ligt in de provincie KwaZoeloe-Natal en telt 907.519 inwoners [3] . Cetshwayo, also spelled Cetewayo, (born c. 1826, near Eshowe, Zululand [now in South Africa]—died Feb. 8, 1884, Eshowe), last great king of the independent Zulus (reigned 1872–79), whose strong military leadership and political acumen restored the power and prestige of the Zulu nation, which had declined during the reign of his father, Mpande (Panda). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Cetshwayo, South African History Online - Biography of Cetshwayo, Cetshwayo - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Cetshwayo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). 2.2. That same year, Cetshwayo sought out the Colonial hunter-traders who he had fought against at Ndondakusuka. The letter gives Cetshwayo's version of the war and his objections to being exiled. Cetshwayo's son Dinizulu, as heir to the throne, was proclaimed king on 20 May 1884. After his father’s death in 1872, Cetshwayo’s position as ruler was formalized. As British intentions became clear, Cetshwayo, eager to avoid the slightest hint of provocation, withdrew his army to well behind the border. In the past century King Cetshwayo's 'place in history' has been revised and, indeed, transformed by a succession of ideological and cultural currents flowing through the mainstream of South Africa's historical literature. District Mayor Nonhle Mkhulisi, Deputy Mayor Linda Phungula and Cllr Madanga Xulu convened the programme where the tribal authorities were introduced to the reticulation project and its impact on the communities of wards 13 and 14. C. T. Binns, The Last Zulu King: The Life and Death of Cetshwayo (1963), is an interesting and sympathetic, but somewhat inadequately researched, biography. Cetshwayo was declared heir because he was born of a wife given to Mpande by Dingane. Cetshwayo returned to Ulundi in January 1883, and, although he was welcomed by his Usuthu supporters, Zibhebhu and his Mandlakazi supporters prepared for civil war. Cetshwayo distinguished himself early in life, taking part in the 1838 Zulu attempt to evict the invading Boers from Natal, and in the early 1850s he was involved in fighting between the Zulu and the Swazi for control of the Pongola region. (eds) (1970). During his reign Mpande was faced with both British and Afrikaner settlers on his borders, and he continuously tried not to alienate either party, ceding some of the Zulu Kingdom’s land. He died in his Kraal, Nodwengu in Zululand. Cetshwayo’s father, Mpande, was Shaka Zulu’s half brother. He was born in 1826, a very troubled period in the history of the Zulu kingdom. As long as King Cetshwayo remained at large there was still a chance of resistance from the Zulu nation but the British finally got their man 140 years ago today Troy Lennon History … The British recovered from their defeat and later reached Ulundi (the capital of Zululand), seizing and burning it in July of that year; this was followed by Cetshwayo’s capture in August and his subsequent exile to Cape Town. Conflict became inevitable when Mbuyazi and his supporters, the iziGqoza, moved to their lands just north of the Thukela River, clearing the area of Cetshwayo's supporters. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH]. By March 1883 Zibhebhu was moving against Cetshwayo's supporters in his assigned northern territory and Cetshwayo's uSuthu marched against him. Gemeenten in het district [4] [ bewerken | brontekst bewerken ] The situation was finally alleviated when the British annexed the South African Republic in April 1877. Cetshwayo, also spelled Cetewayo, (born c. 1826, near Eshowe, Zululand [now in South Africa]—died Feb. 8, 1884, Eshowe), last great king of the independent Zulus (reigned 1872–79), whose strong military leadership and political acumen restored the power and prestige of the Zulu nation, which had declined during the reign of his father, Mpande (Panda). King Cetshwayo – dystrykt w Republice Południowej Afryki, w prowincji KwaZulu-Natal. Shaka Zulu was in conflict with Shoshangane, a leader of a breakaway faction that had fled the Zulu kingdom and had established their kingdom near Delagoa Bay. He was imprisoned and sent into exile in the Cape. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Binns, C.T. As Cetshwayo grew older, he began to undermine his father’s authority and assumed control of the kingdom. The Boers were prepared to meet his request if he spared Umtonga’s life and Mpande signed a deed giving the Boers the additional land. A Zulu King Speaks: Statements Made by Cetshwayo KaMpande on the History and Customs of His People Volume 3 of Killie Campbell Africana Library, Reprint series Pietermaritzburg. In 1877 the British annexed the Boer republic of Transvaal, an event that fostered a drive to federate the southern African white colonies and to destroy the autonomy of the independent southern African kingdoms. The last king of the independent Zulu nation from 1872-1879, Mlambongwenya, near Eshowe, Zululand (now KwaZulu Natal), Biography of Cetshwayo kaMpande, the last king of an independent Zulu nation (1872-1879), Cetshwayo kaMpaande in Zulu Literature by N.N. Cetshwayo was born about 1832. His father declared him his successor very early on in life, which was unusual for a King to do. Cetshwayo was depicted as a military despot barely able to hold back his warriors from attacking Natal, and the Zulu kingdom as a steam engine with a stuck safety valve about to explode. 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