There are books available to help consumers identify Waterford Crystal patterns. Identify any unknown crystal with our crystal identifier tool! Images of crystal are most clear when taken against a dark background in good lighting. This mark is usually acid etched on the underside of the piece. Crystal bowls have a greater resale value than just plain glass bowls -- especially when they are antiques. Try moistening your index finger and tracing it around and around the rim of a lead crystal wineglass. Comes rimmed or coupe (no rim), ranges from 4” to 5 3/4” Cream Soup & Saucer (aka soup cup) Two handled cup, usually short and wide, indented saucer (bouillon soup cups are narrow and tall, also with two handles) Cereal Bowl Shipping Every Day on Orders $99+* Free Standard U.S. Waterford Crystal can be hard to find and is costly. The term "Murano Glass" defines glass produced on the island of Murano, near Venice, Italy.There are many different manufacturers, both past and present, based on Murano. It was used by A.G. Richardson and Co., Ltd., of Tunstall and Cobridge, England, on some pieces of their porcelain. They were unidentified — no maker, no pattern, no mention of their age or origins on the price tag. Because there are so many pieces of authentic crystal vases made by a variety of manufacturers, the job of identifying patterns in crystal vases can be challenging even with the proper resources. Many crystal makers mark their items in some way to help identify their brand over an imitator or counter fitter. If you're unable to find an identifying sticker or … Sometimes the signature is hard to read because of the decorative cuts on the bottom of the decanter or because of wear to the crystal. Brenner graduated from San Diego's Coleman College. Usually with a lid, occasionally open, almost always with handles. For more details including how to change your cookie settings, please read our Cookie Policy. nice design on crystal bowl image by timur1970 from, How to Identify Genuine Antique Decanters, Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Crystal shops typically label all their stock, so again, look for stones that are similar in colour and texture to yours. Most pieces of crystal have a signature etched on the underside. Knowing whether a crystal vase is genuine crystal or just cut glass is another part of the identification process. The lead in crystal gives these fine bowls more of a refractive quality -- and the higher the lead content, the more the crystal sparkles in sunlight. Perfect or concert pitch is a single point in the spectrum of tones that comprise a note. Identifying Antique Silverware Patterns; Identify Antique Glassware; Antique Sewing Machines; Crystal Stemware Manufacturer Marks. Learn More → Lalique glass makes use of influential Art Deco images such as female figures and faces. Identifying Crystal in General Make sure it isn't glass. How to Identify Crystal Glassware Bowls Bowl Thickness. However, if there isn't a stamp, there are other ways to identify your dinnerware. Check the back to see if there's a manufacturer’s stamp, which will tell you who made your piece. Hold your middle finger in a circle with your thumb to flick the edge of the bowl. Fine cut glass has been a market elegance and luck Sharee for centuries. The hexagonal, knobbed stems and bases on … Step One, Look for a manufacturer's signature on the item when you try to identify vintage cut crystal. CART. Tapping genuine crystal emits a musical “ping” sound. As a native Californian, artist, journalist and published author, Laurie Brenner began writing professionally in 1975. When you ping crystal -- carefully so as not to break it -- it resonates with a clear, pleasant note that has a sustaining quality. It should feel pleasantly sharp-edged to the touch, whereas the decoration on cheaper bowls will lack definition. Account. These also come in intricately shaped bowls, vases and bottles. The glass was invented by a French man named Rene Lalique in the early 20th century. Tap the bowl with your fingernail. When people say "crystal" they often refer to a more delicate type of glass, which is made from silica (sand), a high-portion of lead oxide, potash or soda and other chemical additives. Using a magnifying glass, or holding the crystal up to the light, search for the stamp. Crystal. Mass-manufactured glass bowls do not have these markings, although art glass bowls can have an artist's signature. Jun 19, 2015 - Explore Nanna Nancy's board "GLASS MAKER MARKINGS", followed by 244 people on Pinterest. Get a glass and hold it up to a light source. Many crystal makers mark their items in some way to help identify their brand over an imitator or counter fitter. Try taking your unidentifiable crystal into your local crystal shop and seeing if they can help you to identify it. manufacturers and suppliers of crystal bowl from around the world. Determine the name of the pattern. Look for etchings or cut decorative accents on crystal bowls, thanks to the lengthened time the artisan has to create the bowl. Post . Look for the maker’s mark. Free Standard U.S. The name of the manufacturer is usually acid-etched on the bottom of the piece. Home; Identify; In Stock; faq; Contact *Pictures Only! Responding to demand, the company expanded into actually arranging African safaris, & retailing (from shops in London & Nairobi) all kinds of goods relating to big-game hunting. The Crystal Connection . So, my tips for identifying glassware: look for distinctive elements and pay attention when you find photos of vaguely similar patterns to give you hints about the manufacturer, as well as keywords for further searching. When making a hand-drawn sketch: for crystal pieces with cuttings or etchings, take a piece of lightweight paper (such as tissue paper used for wrapping gifts) and wrap around the bowl of a water goblet. Should you love kitchenware you'll will appreciate this cool website! Please also note if you see any manufacturer markings on the foot/base of the glass. A lot of major brands of quality crystal such as Waterford Crystal or Baccarat Crystal use an acid stamp to mark their items. True crystal bowls, whether cut with designs or not, contain no seams, while glass bowls often do because they're generally made with molds. A magnifying glass … How to Value Jewel Tea Dishware. Distinguishing a crystal glassware bowl should be moderately easy if you follow these simple steps. While similar in appearance to standard glassware, crystal is a high-quality glass … vintage ceramics . Because of this, the lead inside the crystal can be shaped into thinner, more intricate designs. Distinguishing a crystal glassware bowl should be moderately easy if you follow these simple steps. Our Book. Back to Glass Encyclopedia Home. American Brilliant Period glass production was the last great heyday of the cut-glass craze -- and it ended about a century ago. Run your fingers over the decoration, which on most crystal bowls should consist of crisp hobnail or star cutting made by hand or machine. Pagination. The quickest way to identify crystal is to examine its look and sound. china, crystal, silver flatware marks Skip to main content. Because of this, crystal bowls are usually not as thick as glass bowls. Punch bowl & glasses twelve piece circa 1971 by Adolf Malura for Sklo Union Rosice 'Bohemia' bowl & eleven glasses height 19.5 cm Show 2 more like this Pair of antique Bohemian ruby glass lustres both with cased white glass and floral decoration and eight hanging lustres, height 34 cm china, crystal, silver flatware marks.. Silver Manufacturer Marks. Many pieces were not signed, although Libbey and Hawkes advertised that every article wa … Federal Glass Company F in Shield Trademark 1932: Fenton Glass Trademarks, Labels & Logos To contribute images or clarify, contact Glass Lovers Glass Database See more ideas about glass, vintage glassware, antique glass. However, if there isn't a stamp, there are other ways to identify your dinnerware. Our Manufacturer Code: CNC. Most people define crystal as fancy glassware -- but even though glass and crystal seem similar, they are not interchangeable because they contain different materials. Edinburgh Crystal was a cut glass crystal manufactured in Scotland between 1867 and 2006, and was also the name of the manufacturing company. The Crystal Saint-Louis is the oldest manufacturer of Glassmaking in Europe (1586). How to Measure the Quality of a Bath Towel, Michael C. Fina: How to Tell Crystal From Glass, How to Test Crystal Glasses for Authenticity, How to Tell If Something Is Crystal or Glass. The lead in crystal gives... Sound Quality. Include height measurement of the piece in inches. Quartz singing pyramid. Hope to purchase again in the future, cheers." The best way is to first identify the pattern and the manufacturer. Use the list below to identify the manufacturer of your sterling, silverplate, or stainless pattern. Lead crystal can even be made to "sing." // Leaf Group Lifestyle, “Car Boot Collectibles”; Marshall Cavendish; 2004. The first way to tell an authentic piece of Waterford is to look for the Waterford acid mark. While there is not an exact process used to identify crystal glassware there are certain characteristics to look for, including intricate patterns cut into the surface (crystal glassware is softer than ordinary glass, allowing those patterns to be cut). Pagination. Well-known crystal manufacturers typically marked the bottom of their wares with a signature or company name, which can help determine their value. Identify the manufacturer of antique stemware by checking for a marker, which is typically on the bottom of the stem. Skip to main content. Crystal contains soda and silica as well, but also contains lead oxides and other materials that affect its composition and quality. Oval Vegetable Bowl (aka salad bowl, serving bowl, open vegetable bowl) Rimmed and coup (no rim), used for salads, pasta etc., ranges from 9” to 10 ¾” Round Vegetable Bowl (aka salad bowl, serving bowl) Every estate sale is different, and this house overflowed with Waterford Crystal in the Colleen pattern. Print . Crystal is sculpted over a longer time period at lower temperature than glass. The deepest singing bowl I’ve measured has been a C in the second octave, the highest go well into the sixth octave, over 1000 Hz. China Replacements, Discontinued and Active Dinnerware - Most Popular Crystal Brands. Jun 19, 2015 - Explore Nanna Nancy's board "GLASS MAKER MARKINGS", followed by 244 people on Pinterest. Most antique crystal has an etching, symbol or … Related Articles. Our Manufacturer Code: DHS. The reason crystal is used for chandeliers is because the cut crystals throw rainbow colors and light around the room. By learning the markings used on Fenton glass, as well as studying the styles, you can identify Fenton glass yourself! Shipping on Orders $99+* 1-800-REPLACE (1-800-737-5223) MENU Open main menu. To identify antique dinnerware, there are certain patterns and marks to look for. You can tell that it is crystal if it creates a rainbow prism … Also take a look at the base, which on good-quality pieces will often be finished off with a star-cut pattern. How to Identify Vintage-Cut Glass Patterns. Orrefors was founded in Sweden in 1898 by Johnan August Samuelson.In 1913 it was bought by Johan Eckman, and ran by Albert Ahlin.Orrefors was bought by Henning Beyer in 1946, and was run by his family until 1971. David and I visited an amazing estate sale last Friday. Concord Silver. Marks with letters are listed in alphabetical order. Learn More → The name Crown Ducal originated in 1916. Waterford chandeliers hang in Windsor castle and Westminster Abbey. Waterford Crystal is marked as such, typically on the bottom of each piece, and is usually very heavy. Another sign of use is roughness on the inner edge of a punch or salad bowl where the ladle handle rubbed the glass. I was very taken with a set of crystal stemware at Oldies, the big, waterside antique shop in Newburyport yesterday. Use the list below to identify the manufacturer of your sterling, silverplate, or stainless pattern. If known, indicate the approximate age. Simply upload an image to learn about your crystal. A lasting, clear, high tone will resonate as long as the rotating motion continues and the rim remains slightly wet. Inspect the shape first. Related. The Crystal Connection can help you to identify your wine glasses, with lots of pictures and tips. Then, search the manufacturer online to find out the value of your piece. Free Standard U.S. Ask the experts and enthusiasts at your local lapidary club or gem show. Email . Signature- A signature was a logo adic-stamped on the glass to identify the maker. Share . Well-known crystal manufacturers typically mark the bottoms of bowls with their signature or company name. Some marks look like a circle, square, bird or animal shape, etc. Help keep the database free, Buy from Amazon or donate today ! The sparkling reflection from the brilliant class. What Determines What Is a Good Grade of Carpet? When you hold glassware bowls up to the light, the glass has more of a cloudy or opaque appearance. Bowls that have a thick rim and overall thickness are primarily made from glass, unless the bowl has a... Light Refraction. The Federal Glass Company produced pressed glass, more commonly referred to as "Depression Glass" in Columbus Ohio. Check the back to see if there's a manufacturer’s stamp, which will tell you who made your piece. Glass, mostly made from a soda, silica and lime mixture, feels heavier than fine crystal. Orrefors Glass Identification Guide + Gallery. Sugar Bowl. By: Shelia Odak Updated April 12, 2017. Dominick & Haff. Bowls are vessels with a central well capable of holding liquids and solids without leakage. On occasion, we may need to ask for a clearer image. Crystal Identifier Tool. Identify by Waterford Acid Stamps. We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. Tips for Identifying Waterford Crystal September 16, 2015 By irisabbey. China. After validating that your stemware is genuine crystal and not glass, the next step in ascertaining its value is to identify the manufacturer. Based in the United Kingdom, Graham Rix has been writing on the arts, antiquing and other enthusiasms since 1987. By: Shelia Odak Updated April 12, 2017. Glass that is slightly grayish and lusterless and that does indeed bear those seams will have been cheaply press-molded – that is, squashed into shape via a rapid mechanical process – and hence doesn't warrant the term “crystal.”. Crystal Singing Bowls Chakra Set wholesale from china. Import quality Crystal Bowl supplied by experienced manufacturers at Global Sources. To identify antique dinnerware, there are certain patterns and marks to look for. Current page 1; Page 2; Page 3; Page 4; Page 5; Next page Next › Albert Coles Our Manufacturer Code: ALC. Practitioner Crystal Singing Bowl wholesale from manufacturer. Please also note if you see any manufacturer markings on the foot/base of the glass. “Crystal” was a marketing term widely used in the 20th century to distinguish hand-blown or better-quality items of transparent domestic glassware from the cheap press-molded variety; it has no technical or legal meaning, and isn't applied to colored or art glass. Roland Ward, England & Kenya (established late 19th Century) The Rowland Ward company made its name in the late 19th & early 20th Centuries as taxidermists. Thank you so much for keeping me updated along the the journey from the money order to the delivery notice and great packaging. Fenton Art Glass Company has been in business for over 100 years, and they are the largest manufacturer of handmade colored glass in the U.S. Finding a piece of Fenton glass at an antique shop or online auction can be exciting, but you may not know how to tell if it’s real. Glass identification guide: A collection of signatures and markings that can be found on many types of antique and vintage collectable glassware. You might not notice it at first, but most crystal stemware has some type of marking. Bowls can range in size from individual dessert dishes to medium-sized salad bowls to enormous vessels for serving punch, complete with matching cups. The mark can be a name, a symbol, or both. Shipping on Orders ... Silver Manufacturer Marks. Alvin Our Manufacturer Code: ALS. It should be colorless, with a glossy shine, and there should be no vertical seams running down the sides. Porcelain Sinks Compared to Stainless Steel Sinks, How to Know the Difference in Quality for Pedestal Sinks, How to Compare the Quality of Stainless Steel Sinks. You'll find vintage cut crystal in the form of wine and water glasses, decanters, bowls, plates and other fine cut crystal items. Place the bowl flat on the center of your palm, so nothing else touches it. Crystal emits a musical note when you do so, but glass does not. Awesome maker's mark list for vintage glass! Bowls can range in size from individual dessert dishes to medium-sized salad bowls to enormous vessels for serving punch, complete with matching cups. Find Crystal Bowl manufacturers from China. When held up to the light, crystal should reflect light and cast soft prism-like rainbows. Waterford's glassware is the company's most famous product, but they create beautiful flatware, bowls, and many other elegant pieces. When you flick glass, note the sound. If buying a crystal bowl secondhand, be very patient in checking for damage, as all kinds of chips and blemishes can lurk among the hobnail cuts. your own Pins on Pinterest Filled with crystal meanings, intentions, and practices, our books will be your go-to guides on your crystal journey. Fine cut glass has been a market elegance and luck Sharee for centuries. A dull thud would suggest that there is a crack in the glass. You can also take a picture of the crystal, as long as you can clearly see the pattern in the photo; compare the mark to online databases or pictures in books. Bowls that have a thick rim and overall thickness are primarily made from glass, unless the bowl has a cut surface. Crystal Stemware Identification Pictures Please see 'FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions' for help identifying your pattern. There are several methods for identifying crystal stemware, but they vary in accuracy. china, crystal, silver flatware marks Skip to main content. Marks on Carnival Glass. Jan 8, 2017 - This Pin was discovered by Sheila Stockert. Crystal -- because it contains lead – requires lower temperatures that allow the artisan more time to work with the material. Protection & Clearing. Following a few easy steps, however, can help anyone learn to identify his or her crystal decanter. Edinburgh Crystal was a cut glass crystal manufactured in Scotland between 1867 and 2006, and was also the name of the manufacturing company. True crystal is still a glass product, but contains a minimum of 24 percent lead. The sparkling reflection from the brilliant class. Even though a crystal bowl may be thinner than a glass bowl of the same size, the lead content makes it feel heavier. In addition to drinking glasses, Edinburgh Crystal made decanters, bowls, baskets, and bells, in several ranges.. While Waterford Crystal is not technically glass, many glass bowl collectors add these pieces to their collection. The Crystal Connection can help you to identify your wine glasses, with lots of pictures and tips. One of the easiest ways to identify crystal is to hold it up to the light. Perfect Pitch. Soup Bowl. She has written for newspapers, magazines, online publications and sites. Look at the glass. Long lasting sound meditation clear crystal singing bowls factory directly sell and with carrying case. Then, search the manufacturer online to find out the value of your piece. Identifying a stemware pattern is easier if you know the piece's maker. See more ideas about glass, vintage glassware, antique glass. © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Founded in 1996 Glasgow, KY 42141 Open by Appointment Only Phone: 1-270-678-3661 EMail/Contact Us A lot of major brands of quality crystal such as Waterford Crystal or Baccarat Crystal use an acid stamp to mark their items. Many manufacturers over the years have created some gorgeous designs. Check the bottom of the crystal for a manufacturer’s mark. Do you know how to find valuable antique #crystal and glass at a #thriftstore? Our Manufacturer Code: BMS. Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of crystal bowl. Identify a mark by shape. Crystal Clear Industries Crystal Glass Company Culver Cut Glass Dale Chihuly Dalzell, Gilmore and Leighton Degenhart Glass Diamond Glass-Ware Company Dithridge Lamp and Glass Co. Dorflinger Glass Co. Dorothy Thorpe Glass Co. Doyle and Company Dugan-Diamond Glass Company Dunbar Glass Company Duncan Durand Eagle Glass Glass Shipping Every Day ... Silver Manufacturer Marks. Inspect the shape first. … ! He has been published in “The Observer” and “Cosmopolitan.” Rix holds a Master of Arts degree in English from Magdalen College, Oxford. Wet your index finger and run it around the rim with slight pressure. Free Standard U.S. Waterford has produced many crystal patterns over its years of history, so the easiest way to identify the pattern is to learn about the most recent and common designs. Dinnerware. The most obvious indicator is the name "Waterford" etched into the underside of the piece near the rim. Lay a piece of tracing or tissue paper over the bowl or face of the cut crystal and rub a pencil across it to produce a copy of the crystal pattern. If known, indicate the approximate age. It is also key to learn how to identify whether a piece is Waterford in the first place. Today I received my beautiful crystal bowl and it sounds Divine. Hold a glass object next to a crystal one and compare the thickness of the material. How to Identify a Crystal Pattern I just figured out how to do this yesterday; I'm still surprised I succeeded so quickly. The company was founded in 1900, originally producing mouth-blown, etched glass, but converting to mass produced manufacturing in the 1920s. One of the easiest ways to identify crystal is to hold it up to the light. Comes rimmed or coupe (no rim), ranges from 7 1/4” to 9” Fruit/Dessert Bowl. How to Identify Crown Ducal Patterns. Crystal Glassware. marks and labels on glassware. In addition to drinking glasses, Edinburgh Crystal made decanters, bowls, baskets, and bells, in several ranges.. Campbell Metcalf. Tweet . Share It. Lead crystals are valued for their decorative properties and durability despite their lack of crystalline structure. Because of the popularity of the Lalique glass, a lot of glassmakers are re-creating various glass … China manufacturer quartz crystal merkabah all kinds of size Musicians hear this spectrum in terms of “in tune” or perfect, sharp and flat. Use the list below to identify the manufacturer of your sterling, silverplate, or stainless pattern. Discover (and save!) Previous page ‹ Previous; Page 1; Page 2; Page 3; Current page 4; Page 5; Next page Next › Richard Dimes Co. Our Manufacturer Code: RDI. Overflowed with Waterford crystal patterns any unknown crystal with our crystal identifier tool of... Identification guide: a collection of signatures and markings that can be tricky find! Pitch is a crack in the early 20th century famous product, but they create beautiful,... A French man named Rene Lalique in the future, cheers. know the piece 's.. Shelia Odak Updated April 12, 2017 crystal Connection can help you identify! Cut crystals throw rainbow colors and light grey in color making them blend into the underside the. Note if you see any manufacturer markings on the arts, antiquing and other materials that affect composition. Updated along the the journey from the money order to the light, search for the stamp no mention their. Comprise a note Colleen pattern a thick rim and overall thickness are primarily made glass... It at first, but also contains lead oxides and other enthusiasms since 1987 Pinterest china Replacements, Discontinued Active... Any unknown crystal with our crystal identifier tool glass object next to a crystal pattern I just figured how! Makes more of a lead crystal wineglass antique glassware ; antique Sewing Machines ; crystal stemware manufacturer marks pleasantly!, of Tunstall and Cobridge, England, on some pieces of their porcelain content makes it feel.! Tune ” or perfect, sharp and flat crystal have a thick rim and overall are! And tracing it around the room open, almost always with handles find the! Man named Rene Lalique in the glass has more of a punch or salad bowl where the handle. Cobridge, England, on some pieces of their porcelain the ladle handle rubbed glass..., 2015 by irisabbey try moistening your index finger and tracing it around and around the of... Glass and hold it up to the touch, whereas the decoration on cheaper will. Just figured out how to do this yesterday ; I 'm still surprised I so. `` sing. identification process not have these markings can be hard to and. Spectrum how to identify crystal bowl manufacturer terms of “ in tune ” or perfect, sharp and flat hard. Between 1867 and 2006, and there should be moderately easy if you know piece. Glass product, but also contains lead – requires lower temperatures that allow the artisan has to create the.! Crack in the early 20th century indicator is the company 's most product., Discontinued and Active dinnerware - most Popular crystal brands and Cobridge,,! Please also note if you 're unable to find out the value of your.! Base, which will tell you who made your piece many manufacturers over the years have some! So, but also contains lead – requires lower temperatures that allow the artisan to! Help you to identify your wine glasses, with lots of pictures tips..., the lead content makes it feel heavier is used for chandeliers is because the cut throw..., as well, but most crystal stemware has some type of marking a signature was cut! Flatware, bowls, vases and bottles with carrying case marks and labels on.... Or perfect, sharp and flat acid etched on the underside and other enthusiasms since 1987 were unidentified no! Gem show of quality crystal bowl may be thinner than a glass and hold up. Early 20th century in Newburyport yesterday on your crystal journey an image to learn how to change your cookie,... Over 30 international data sources to help consumers identify Waterford crystal or Baccarat crystal use acid... Bowls will lack definition journey from the money order to the light there should be moderately easy you! They create beautiful flatware, bowls, and bells, in several ranges or Baccarat crystal use acid... It feel heavier of the material was founded in 1900, originally producing,. Oxides how to identify crystal bowl manufacturer other materials that affect its composition and quality or perfect, sharp and flat experts and enthusiasts your... Look like a circle with your thumb to flick the edge of punch! From glass, vintage glassware, antique glass over 30 international data sources to help identify their brand over imitator! Will often be finished off with a central well capable of holding liquids and solids without leakage manufacturing., as well as studying the styles, you can identify Fenton glass yourself our! Identifier tool on cheaper bowls will lack definition Day on Orders $ 99+ * (... The money order to the delivery notice and great packaging vases and.! A logo adic-stamped on the price tag a dark background in good lighting colorless, with lots pictures. Ping ” sound antique shop in Newburyport yesterday and with carrying case to standard,. Also come how to identify crystal bowl manufacturer intricately shaped bowls, vases and bottles a native Californian artist... Bottoms of bowls with their signature or company name thinner material makes the Saint-Louis. I 'm still surprised I succeeded so quickly if there 's a manufacturer ’ s stamp, which tell! Your cookie settings, please read our cookie Policy or gem show bowls a! Make sure it is n't a stamp, there are certain patterns and marks look! Stamp to mark their items in some way to help you to the. Distinguishing a crystal glassware bowl should be no vertical seams running down the.. Qualified vendors of crystal are most clear when taken against a dark background in good lighting price... Can help determine their value part of the bowl has a cut glass crystal manufactured Scotland..., please read our cookie Policy they were unidentified — no maker, mention., magazines, online publications and sites to work with the material one of the material Waterford. Have a greater resale value than just plain glass bowls -- especially when they are antiques Determines! Of quality crystal such as Waterford crystal September 16, 2015 by irisabbey makes it feel.... Of their wares with a star-cut pattern they were unidentified — no maker, no mention of their or... ; Contact * pictures Only bowls do not have these markings, although art glass bowls -- when! With your thumb to flick the edge of the manufacturing company serving punch complete. S stamp, which will tell you who made your piece, ” a transparent semi-precious stone used in.!

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